Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Retirement Benefit Plans

v2.4.0.8
Retirement Benefit Plans
12 Months Ended
Feb. 01, 2014
Compensation and Retirement Disclosure [Abstract]  
Retirement Benefit Plans
Retirement Benefit Plans
 
We provide retirement pension benefits, postretirement health and welfare benefits, as well as 401(k) savings, profit-sharing and stock ownership plan benefits to various segments of our workforce. Retirement benefits are an important part of our total compensation and benefits program designed to retain and attract qualified, talented employees. Pension benefits are provided through defined benefit pension plans consisting of a non-contributory qualified pension plan (Primary Pension Plan) and, for certain management employees, non-contributory supplemental retirement plans, including a 1997 voluntary early retirement plan. Retirement and other benefits include:
 
Defined Benefit Pension Plans
Primary Pension Plan – funded
Supplemental retirement plans – unfunded
 
Other Benefit Plans
Postretirement benefits – medical and dental
Defined contribution plans:
401(k) savings, profit-sharing and stock ownership plan
Deferred compensation plan

 
Defined Benefit Pension Plans

Primary Pension Plan — Funded
The Primary Pension Plan is a funded non-contributory qualified pension plan, initiated in 1966 and closed to new entrants on January 1, 2007. The plan is funded by Company contributions to a trust fund, which are held for the sole benefit of participants and beneficiaries.
 
Supplemental Retirement Plans — Unfunded
We have unfunded supplemental retirement plans, which provide retirement benefits to certain management employees. We pay ongoing benefits from operating cash flow and cash investments. The plans are a Supplemental Retirement Program and a Benefit Restoration Plan. Participation in the Supplemental Retirement Program is limited to employees who were annual incentive-eligible management employees as of December 31, 1995. Benefits for these plans are based on length of service and final average compensation. The Benefit Restoration Plan is intended to make up benefits that could not be paid by the Primary Pension Plan due to governmental limits on the amount of benefits and the level of pay considered in the calculation of benefits. The Supplemental Retirement Program is a non-qualified plan that was designed to allow eligible management employees to retire at age 60 with retirement income comparable to the age 65 benefit provided under the Primary Pension Plan and Benefit Restoration Plan. In addition, the Supplemental Retirement Program offers participants who leave between ages 60 and 62 benefits equal to the estimated social security benefits payable at age 62. The Supplemental Retirement Program also continues Company-paid term life insurance at a declining rate until it is phased out at age 70. Employee-paid term life insurance through age 65 is continued under a separate plan (Supplemental Term Life Insurance Plan for Management Profit-Sharing Employees).
 
Voluntary Early Retirement Program (VERP)
In August 2011, we announced a VERP under which approximately 8,000 eligible employees had between September 1, 2011 and October 15, 2011 to elect to participate. For the approximately 4,000 employees who elected to accept the VERP, we incurred a total charge of $176 million for enhanced retirement benefits which was recorded in the line item Restructuring and management transition in the Consolidated Statements of Operations (see Note 16). Enhanced retirement benefits of $133 million related to our Primary Pension Plan decreased our overfunded status of the plan. Enhanced retirement benefits of $36 million and $7 million related to our unfunded Supplemental Retirement Program and Benefit Restoration Plan, respectively, increased the projected benefit obligation (PBO) of these plans. In addition, we also incurred curtailment charges totaling $1 million related to our Supplemental Retirement Program and Benefit Restoration Plan as a result of the reduction in the expected years of future service related to these plans. These curtailment charges were recorded in the line item Restructuring and management transition in the Consolidated Statements of Operations (see Note 16). As a result of these curtailments, the liabilities for our Supplemental Retirement Program and Benefit Restoration Plan were remeasured as of October 15, 2011. The discount rate used for the October 15 remeasurements was 5.06% as compared to the year-end 2010 discount rate of 5.65%. As of October 15, 2011, the PBOs of our Supplemental Retirement Program and Benefit Restoration Plan were increased by $71 million and $24 million, respectively.
     
Curtailments
During the first half of 2012, we took actions to reduce our work force.  During the third quarter of 2012, when substantially all employee exits were completed, we recorded a net curtailment gain of $7 million due to the reduction in the expected years of future service related to our retirement benefit plans.  The net curtailment gain is included in the line item Restructuring and management transition in the Consolidated Statements of Operations (see Note 16).  The curtailments resulted in reductions in the PBOs of our Primary Pension Plan, non-qualified supplemental plans and the postretirement health and welfare plan of $80 million, $13 million and $2 million, respectively.  As a result of these curtailments, the liabilities for our retirement benefit plans were remeasured as of September 30, 2012 using a discount rate of 4.25% compared to the year-end 2011 discount rate of 4.82%.  As a result of the remeasurements, the PBOs of our Primary Pension Plan and the non-qualified supplemental plans were increased by $166 million and $55 million, respectively, which was offset by a decrease in our PBO for our post-retirement health and welfare plan by $5 million.  As of September 30, 2012, the PBO’s of our Primary Pension Plan, non-qualified supplemental plans and postretirement health and welfare plan were $5,550 million, $300 million and $18 million, respectively.
 
Primary Pension Plan Lump-Sum Payment Offer
In September 2012, as a result of a plan amendment, we offered approximately 35,000 participants in the Primary Pension Plan who separated from service and had a deferred vested benefit as of August 31, 2012 the option to receive a lump-sum settlement payment. These participants had until November 30, 2012 to elect to receive the lump-sum settlement payment with the payments to be made by the Company beginning on December 4, 2012 using assets from the Primary Pension Plan.  As a result of the approximately 25,000 participants who elected the lump-sum settlements, we made payments totaling $439 million from the Primary Pension Plan’s assets and recognized settlement expense of $148 million for unrecognized actuarial losses.  We also amended the Primary Pension Plan to allow for participants that separate from the Company on or after September 1, 2012 the option of a lump-sum settlement payment from the plan.  The amendment also provided for automatic lump-sum settlement payments for participants with vested balances less than $5,000
 


Pension Expense/(Income) for Defined Benefit Pension Plans
Pension expense is based upon the annual service cost of benefits (the actuarial cost of benefits attributed to a period) and the interest cost on plan liabilities, less the expected return on plan assets for the Primary Pension Plan. Differences in actual experience in relation to assumptions are not recognized immediately but are deferred and amortized over the average remaining service period of approximately eight years for the Primary Pension Plan, subject to a corridor as permitted under GAAP pension plan accounting. 

The components of net periodic benefit expense/(income) for our Primary Pension Plan and our non-contributory supplemental pension plans are as follows:
 
($ in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Primary Pension Plan
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Service cost
 
$
78

 
$
87

 
$
88

Interest cost
 
204

 
242

 
247

Expected return on plan assets
 
(340
)
 
(382
)
 
(385
)
Amortization of actuarial loss/(gain)
 
152

 
220

 
137

Amortization of prior service cost/(credit)
 
6

 

 

Settlement expense
 

 
148

 

Net periodic benefit expense/(income)
 
$
100

 
$
315

 
$
87

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Supplemental Pension Plans
 
 
 
 
 
 
Service cost
 
$

 
$
1

 
$
2

Interest cost
 
12

 
13

 
13

Amortization of actuarial loss/(gain)
 
24

 
23

 
18

Amortization of prior service cost/(credit)
 
1

 
1

 
1

Net periodic benefit expense/(income)
 
$
37

 
$
38

 
$
34

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Primary and Supplemental Pension Plans Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
Service cost
 
$
78

 
$
88

 
$
90

Interest cost
 
216

 
255

 
260

Expected return on plan assets
 
(340
)
 
(382
)
 
(385
)
Amortization of actuarial loss/(gain)
 
176

 
243

 
155

Amortization of prior service cost/(credit)
 
7

 
1

 
1

Settlement charge
 

 
148

 

Net periodic benefit expense/(income)
 
$
137

 
$
353

 
$
121


 
The defined benefit plan pension expense shown in the above table is included as a separate line item in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
  
Assumptions 
The weighted-average actuarial assumptions used to determine expense were as follows:
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
Expected return on plan assets
7.0
%
 
7.5
%
 
7.5
%
 
Discount rate
4.19
%
 
4.82
%
(1) 
5.65
%
(2) 
Salary increase
4.7
%
 
4.7
%
 
4.7
%
 
 
(1)
The discount rate used was revised to 4.25% on the remeasurement date of September 30, 2012 as a result of the curtailments.
(2)
The discount rate used for the Supplemental Retirement Program and Benefit Restoration Plan was revised to 5.06% on the remeasurement date of October 15, 2011 as a result of the VERP.
 
The expected return on plan assets is based on the plan’s long-term asset allocation policy, historical returns for plan assets and overall capital market returns, taking into account current and expected market conditions. In 2012 and 2011, the expected return on plan assets was 7.5%, which was reduced from the 2010 rate of 8.4% to align our expected rate of return with our new asset allocation targets. The expected return assumption for 2013 and 2014 was further reduced from 7.5% to 7.0% given our new asset allocation targets and updated expected capital markets return assumptions.
     
The discount rate used to measure pension expense each year is the rate as of the beginning of the year (i.e., the prior measurement date). In 2011, the discount rate used was based on an externally published yield curve determined by the plan’s actuary. The yield curve is a hypothetical AA yield curve represented by a series of bonds maturing from six months to 30 years, designed to match the corresponding pension benefit cash payments to retirees.  Beginning with the remeasurement on September 30, 2012, the discount rate used, determined by the plan actuary, was based on a hypothetical AA yield curve represented by a series of bonds maturing over the next 30 years, designed to match the corresponding pension benefit cash payments to retirees.

The salary progression rate to measure pension expense was based on age ranges and projected forward.
   
Funded Status
As of the end of 2013, the funded status of the Primary Pension Plan was 115%. The PBO is the present value of benefits earned to date by plan participants, including the effect of assumed future salary increases. Under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), the funded status of the plan exceeded 100% as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, the qualified pension plan’s year end.  The following table provides a reconciliation of benefit obligations, plan assets and the funded status of the Primary Pension Plan and supplemental pension plans:
 
 
Primary Pension Plan
 
Supplemental Plans
 
($ in millions)
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
 
Change in PBO
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
Beginning balance
$
5,042


$
5,297


$
303


$
309

  
Service cost
78

  
87

  

  
1

  
Interest cost
204

  
242

  
12

  
13

  
Special termination benefits

  

  

  

  
Amendments
17

  
42

  
(8
)
  

  
Curtailments

 
(80
)
 

 
(13
)
 
Settlements

 
(439
)
 

 

 
Actuarial loss/(gain)
(442
)
  
204

  
(34
)
  
59

  
Benefits (paid)
(422
)
 
(311
)
 
(54
)
 
(66
)
 
Balance at measurement date
$
4,477

  
$
5,042

  
$
219

  
$
303

  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in fair value of plan assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beginning balance
$
5,035

  
$
5,176

  
$

  
$

  
Company contributions

  

  
54

  
66

  
Actual return on assets(1)
527

  
609

  

  

  
Settlements

 
(439
)
 

 

 
Benefits (paid)
(422
)
 
(311
)
 
(54
)
 
(66
)
 
Balance at measurement date
$
5,140

  
$
5,035

  
$

  
$

  
Funded status of the plan
$
663

(2) 
$
(7
)
(3) 
$
(219
)
(4) 
$
(303
)
(4) 
 
(1)
Includes plan administrative expenses.
(2)
Presented as Prepaid pension in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(3)
Included in Other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(4)
$44 million in 2013 and $53 million in 2012 were included in Other accounts payable and accrued expenses on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, and the remaining amounts were included in Other liabilities.
 
In 2013, the funded status of the Primary Pension Plan improved by $670 million primarily due to strong asset performance and an increase in the discount rate. The actual one-year return on pension plan assets at the measurement date was 11.1% in 2013, bringing the cumulative return since inception of the plan to 9.0%
 
The following pre-tax amounts were recognized in Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of the end of 2013 and 2012:
 
 
Primary Pension Plan
 
Supplemental Plans
($ in millions)
2013
 
2012
 
2013
 
2012
Net actuarial loss/(gain)
$
898

 
$
1,679

 
$
127

 
$
185

Prior service cost/(credit)
53

  
42

 
(6
)
  
3

Total
$
951

(1) 
$
1,721

 
$
121

(1) 
$
188

 
(1)
In 2014, approximately $57 million for the Primary Pension Plan and $15 million for the supplemental plans are expected to be amortized from Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) into net periodic benefit expense/(income) included in Pension in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.

Assumptions to Determine Obligations
The weighted-average actuarial assumptions used to determine benefit obligations for each of the years below were as follows:
 
 
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Discount rate
 
4.89
%
 
4.19
%
 
4.82
%
Salary progression rate
 
3.5
%
 
4.7
%
 
4.7
%

 
We use the Retirement Plans 2000 Table of Combined Healthy Lives (RP 2000 Table), projected using Scale AA to forecast mortality improvements into the future to 2020 for annuitants and 2028 for non-annuitants. 
 
Accumulated Benefit Obligation (ABO)
The ABO is the present value of benefits earned to date, assuming no future salary growth. The ABO for our Primary Pension Plan was $4.2 billion and $4.7 billion as of the end of 2013 and 2012, respectively. At the end of 2013, plan assets of $5.1 billion for the Primary Pension Plan were above the ABO. The ABO for our unfunded supplemental pension plans was $200 million and $268 million as of the end of 2013 and 2012, respectively. 
 
Primary Pension Plan Asset Allocation
The target allocation ranges for each asset class as of the end of 2013 and the fair value of each asset class as a percent of the total fair value of pension plan assets were as follows:
 
 
 
2013 Target
 
Plan Assets
Asset Class
 
Allocation Ranges
 
2013
 
2012
Equity
 
40% -60%
 
44
%
 
48
%
Fixed income
 
35% -50%
 
42
%
 
43
%
Real estate, cash and other investments
 
0% - 10%
 
14
%
 
9
%
Total
 
 
 
100
%
 
100
%

 
Asset Allocation Strategy
The Primary Pension Plan’s investment strategy is designed to provide a rate of return that, over the long term, increases the ratio of plan assets to liabilities by maximizing investment return on assets, at an appropriate level of volatility risk. The plan’s asset portfolio is actively managed and invested in equity securities, which have historically provided higher returns than debt portfolios, balanced with fixed income (i.e., debt securities) and other asset classes to maintain an efficient risk/return diversification profile. In 2011 and 2012, we shifted 15% and 5%, respectively, of the plan’s target allocation from equities into fixed income. In 2013, we added an allocation to low volatility hedge fund strategies through a fund of funds approach. These shifts in allocation are additional steps towards lowering the plan’s volatility risk and matching the plan’s investment strategy with a maturing liability profile. The risk of loss in the plan’s equity portfolio is mitigated by investing in a broad range of equity types. Equity diversification includes large-capitalization and small-capitalization companies, growth-oriented and value-oriented investments and U.S. and non-U.S. securities. Investment types, including high-yield versus investment-grade debt securities, illiquid assets such as real estate, the use of derivatives and Company securities are set forth in written guidelines established for each investment manager and monitored by the plan’s management team. In 2011, the plan exited all of the remaining Company’s stock associated with the 2009 voluntary contribution of JCPenney common stock to the plan. ERISA rules allow plans to invest up to 10% of a plan’s assets in their company’s stock. The plan’s asset allocation policy is designed to meet the plan’s future pension benefit obligations. Under the policy, asset classes are periodically reviewed and rebalanced as necessary, to ensure that the mix continues to be appropriate relative to established targets and ranges.
 
We have an internal Benefit Plans Investment Committee (BPIC), which consists of senior executives who have established a review process of asset allocation and investment strategies and oversee risk management practices associated with the management of the plan’s assets. Key risk management practices include having an established and broad decision-making framework in place, focused on long-term plan objectives. This framework consists of the BPIC and various third parties, including investment managers, an investment consultant, an actuary and a trustee/custodian. The funded status of the plan is monitored on a continuous basis, including quarterly reviews with updated market and liability information. Actual asset allocations are monitored monthly and rebalancing actions are executed at least quarterly, if needed. To manage the risk associated with an actively managed portfolio, the plan’s management team reviews each manager’s portfolio on a quarterly basis and has written manager guidelines in place, which are adjusted as necessary to ensure appropriate diversification levels. Also, annual audits of the investment managers are conducted by independent auditors. Finally, to minimize operational risk, we utilize a master custodian for all plan assets, and each investment manager reconciles its account with the custodian at least quarterly.
Fair Value of Primary Pension Plan Assets
The tables below provide the fair values of the Primary Pension Plan’s assets as of the end of 2013 and 2012, by major class of asset.
 
 
 
Investments at Fair Value at February 1, 2014
($ in millions)
 
Level 1(1)
 
Level 2(1)
 
Level 3
 
Total
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash
 
$
158

 
$

 
$

 
$
158

Common collective trusts
 

 
32

 

 
32

Cash and cash equivalents total
 
158

 
32

 

 
190

Common collective trusts – domestic
 

 
224

 

 
224

Common collective trusts – international
 

 
335

 

 
335

Equity securities – domestic
 
1,206

 

 

 
1,206

Equity securities – international
 
197

 
6

 

 
203

Private equity
 

 

 
298

 
298

Equity securities total
 
1,403

 
565

 
298

 
2,266

Common collective trusts
 

 
1,099

 

 
1,099

Corporate bonds
 

 
838

 
11

 
849

Swaps
 

 
238

 

 
238

Government securities
 

 
106

 

 
106

Corporate loans
 

 
27

 
6

 
33

Municipal bonds
 

 
50

 

 
50

Mortgage backed securities
 

 
6

 

 
6

Other fixed income
 
1

 
12

 

 
13

Fixed income total
 
1

 
2,376

 
17

 
2,394

Public REITs
 
118

 

 

 
118

Private real estate
 

 
19

 
204

 
223

Real estate total
 
118

 
19

 
204

 
341

Hedge funds
 

 

 
153

 
153

Other investments total
 

 

 
153

 
153

Total investment assets at fair value
 
$
1,680

 
$
2,992

 
$
672

 
$
5,344

Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Swaps
 
$

 
$
(237
)
 
$

 
$
(237
)
Other fixed income
 
(2
)
 
(2
)
 

 
(4
)
Fixed income total
 
(2
)
 
(239
)
 

 
(241
)
Total liabilities at fair value
 
$
(2
)
 
$
(239
)
 
$

 
$
(241
)
Accounts payable, net
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
37

Total net assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
5,140

 
(1)
There were no significant transfers in or out of level 1 or 2 investments.
 
 
Investments at Fair Value at February 2, 2013
($ in millions)
 
Level 1(1)
 
Level 2(1)
 
Level 3
 
Total
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash
 
$
31

 
$

 
$

 
$
31

Common collective trusts
 

 
47

 

 
47

Cash and cash equivalents total
 
31

 
47

 

 
78

Common collective trusts – domestic
 

 
161

 

 
161

Common collective trusts – international
 

 
407

 

 
407

Equity securities – domestic
 
1,325

 

 

 
1,325

Equity securities – international
 
210

 
6

 

 
216

Private equity
 

 

 
297

 
297

Equity securities total
 
1,535

 
574

 
297

 
2,406

Common collective trusts
 

 
1,171

 

 
1,171

Corporate bonds
 

 
871

 
10

 
881

Swaps
 

 
216

 

 
216

Municipal bonds
 

 
49

 

 
49

Mortgage backed securities
 

 
26

 
12

 
38

Corporate loans
 

 
54

 

 
54

Government securities
 

 
8

 

 
8

Other fixed income
 
3

 
35

 

 
38

Fixed income total
 
3

 
2,430

 
22

 
2,455

Public REITs
 
133

 

 

 
133

Private real estate
 

 
17

 
231

 
248

Real estate total
 
133

 
17

 
231

 
381

Total investment assets at fair value
 
$
1,702

 
$
3,068

 
$
550

 
$
5,320

Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Swaps
 
$

 
$
(216
)
 
$

 
$
(216
)
Other fixed income
 

 
(54
)
 

 
(54
)
Fixed income total
 

 
(270
)
 

 
(270
)
Total liabilities at fair value
 
$

 
$
(270
)
 
$

 
$
(270
)
Accounts payable, net
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(15
)
Total net assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
5,035


(1)
There were no significant transfers in or out of level 1 or 2 investments.
 
Following is a description of the valuation methodologies used for Primary Pension Plan assets measured at fair value.
 
Cash – Cash is valued at cost which approximates fair value, and is classified as level 1 of the fair value hierarchy.
 
Common Collective Trusts Common collective trusts are pools of investments within cash equivalents, equity and fixed income that are benchmarked relative to a comparable index. They are valued on the basis of the relative interest of each participating investor in the fair value of the underlying assets. The underlying assets are valued at net asset value (NAV) and are classified as level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
 
Equity Securities Equity securities are common stocks and preferred stocks valued based on the price of the security as listed on an open active exchange and classified as level 1 of the fair value hierarchy, as well as warrants and preferred stock that are valued at a price, which is based on a broker quote in an over-the-counter market, and are classified as level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
 
Private Equity Private equity is composed of interests in private equity funds valued on the basis of the relative interest of each participating investor in the fair value of the underlying assets and/or common stock of privately held companies. There are no observable market values for private equity funds. The valuations for the funds are derived using a combination of different methodologies including (1) the market approach, which consists of analyzing market transactions for comparable assets, (2) the income approach using the discounted cash flow model, or (3) cost method. Private equity funds also provide audited financial statements. Private equity investments are classified as level 3 of the fair value hierarchy.

Corporate Bonds – Corporate bonds and Corporate loans are valued at a price which is based on observable market information in primary markets or a broker quote in an over-the-counter market, and are classified as level 2 or level 3 of the fair value hierarchy.
  
Swaps – swap contracts are based on broker quotes in an over-the-counter market and are classified as level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
 
Government, Municipal Bonds and Mortgaged Backed Securities  – Government and municipal securities are valued at a price based on a broker quote in an over-the-counter market and classified as level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. Mortgage backed securities are valued at a price based on observable market information or a broker quote in an over-the-counter market and classified as level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
 
Other fixed income non-mortgage asset backed securities, collateral held in short-term investments for derivative contract and derivatives composed of futures contracts, option contracts and other fix income derivatives valued at a price based on observable market information or a broker quote in an over-the-counter market and classified as level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.    
 
Real Estate Real estate is comprised of public and private real estate investments. Real estate investments through registered investment companies that trade on an exchange are classified as level 1 of the fair value hierarchy. Investments through open end private real estate funds that are valued at the reported NAV are classified as level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. Private real estate investments through partnership interests that are valued based on different methodologies including discounted cash flow, direct capitalization and market comparable analysis are classified as level 3 of the fair value hierarchy.

Hedge Fund Hedge funds exposure is through fund of funds, which are made up of over 30 different hedge fund managers diversified over different hedge strategies. The fair value of the hedge fund is determined by the fund's administrator using valuation provided by the third party administrator for each of the underlying funds.
 
The following tables set forth a summary of changes in the fair value of the Primary Pension Plan’s level 3 investment assets:
 
 
 
2013
($ in millions)
 
Private Equity
 
Real Estate
 
Corporate Loans
 
Corporate Bonds
 
Hedge Funds
Balance, beginning of year
 
$
297

 
$
231

 
$
12

 
$
10

 
$

Transfers, net
 

 

 

 

 

Realized gains/(loss)
 
38

 
5

 

 

 

Unrealized (losses)/gains
 
3

 
11

 

 
(1
)
 
3

Purchases and issuances
 
33

 
4

 
2

 
2

 
150

Sales, maturities and settlements
 
(73
)
 
(47
)
 
(8
)
 

 

Balance, end of year
 
$
298

 
$
204

 
$
6

 
$
11

 
$
153

 
 
 
2012
($ in millions)
 
Private Equity
 
Real Estate
 
Corporate Loans
 
Corporate Bonds
Balance, beginning of year
 
$
299

 
$
255

 
$
27

 
$
9

Transfers, net
 

 
3

 

 

Realized gains/(loss)
 
33

 

 
(1
)
 
(1
)
Unrealized (losses)/gains
 
(5
)
 
7

 

 

Purchases and issuances
 
47

 
6

 
3

 
6

Sales, maturities and settlements
 
(77
)
 
(40
)
 
(17
)
 
(4
)
Balance, end of year
 
$
297

 
$
231

 
$
12

 
$
10


 
Contributions
Our policy with respect to funding the Primary Pension Plan is to fund at least the minimum required by ERISA rules, as amended by the Pension Protection Act of 2006, and not more than the maximum amount deductible for tax purposes. Due to our past funding of the pension plan and overall positive growth in plan assets since plan inception, there will not be any required cash contribution for funding of plan assets in 2014 under ERISA, as amended by the Pension Protection Act of 2006.

Our contributions to the unfunded non-qualified supplemental retirement plans are equal to the amount of benefit payments made to retirees throughout the year and for 2014 are anticipated to be approximately $44 million. Benefits are paid in the form of five equal annual installments to participants and no election as to the form of benefit is provided for in the unfunded plans.  The following sets forth our estimated future benefit payments:
 
($ in millions)
 
Primary Plan Benefits
 
Supplemental Plan Benefits
2014
 
$
342

 
$
44

2015
 
331

 
48

2016
 
330

 
42

2017
 
330

 
20

2018
 
331

 
13

2019-2023
 
1,652

 
64


     
Other Benefit Plans
 
Postretirement Benefits — Medical and Dental
We provide medical and dental benefits to retirees through a contributory medical and dental plan based on age and years of service. We provide a defined dollar commitment toward retiree medical premiums.
 
Effective June 7, 2005, we amended the medical plan to reduce our subsidy to post-age 65 retirees and spouses by 45% beginning January 1, 2006, and then fully eliminated the subsidy after December 31, 2006. As disclosed previously, the postretirement benefit plan was amended in 2001 to reduce and cap the per capita dollar amount of the benefit costs that would be paid by the plan. Thus, changes in the assumed or actual health care cost trend rates do not materially affect the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation or our annual expense.
 
Postretirement Plan (Income)
  
($ in millions)
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Interest cost
 
$
1

 
$
1

 
$
1

Amortization of actuarial loss/(gain)
 
(1
)
 
(1
)
 
(1
)
Amortization of prior service cost/(credit)
 
(8
)
 
(14
)
 
(25
)
Net periodic benefit expense/(income)
 
$
(8
)
 
$
(14
)
 
$
(25
)

 
The net periodic postretirement benefit is included in SG&A expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The discount rates used for the postretirement plan are the same as those used for the defined benefit plans, as disclosed on page 83 for all periods presented.

Funded Status
The table below provides a reconciliation of benefit obligations, plan assets and the funded status of the postretirement plan. The accumulated postretirement benefit obligation (APBO) is the present value of benefits earned to date by plan participants.
 
Obligations and Funded Status
 
($ in millions)
 
2013
 
 
 
2012
 
 
Change in APBO
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beginning balance
 
$
18

 
 
 
$
24

 
 
Interest cost
 
1

 
 
 
1

 
 
Participant contributions
 
13

 
 
 
14

 
 
Curtailments
 

 
 
 
(2
)
 
 
Actuarial (gain)/loss
 

 
 
 
(3
)
 
 
Benefits (paid)
 
(17
)
 
 
 
(16
)
 
 
Balance at measurement date
 
$
15

 
 
 
$
18

 
 
Change in fair value of plan assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beginning balance
 
$

 
 
 
$

 
 
Participant contributions
 
13

 

 
14

 
 
Company contributions
 
4

 
 
 
2

 
 
Benefits (paid)
 
(17
)
 
 
 
(16
)
 
 
Balance at measurement date
 
$

 
 
 
$

 
 
Funded status of the plan
 
$
(15
)
 
(1)
 
$
(18
)
 
(1)
 
(1)
Of the total accrued liability, $2 million for 2013 and $2 million for 2012 was included in Other accounts payable and accrued expenses in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, and the remaining amounts were included in Other liabilities.
  
The following pre-tax amounts were recognized in Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) in the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of the end of 2013 and 2012:
   
($ in millions)
 
2013
 
 
 
2012
Net actuarial loss/(gain)
 
$
(6
)
 
 
 
$
(7
)
Prior service cost/(credit)
 
(15
)
 
 
 
(23
)
Total
 
$
(21
)
 
(1) 
 
$
(30
)
  
(1) In 2014, approximately $(1) million of net actuarial loss/(gain) and $(8) million of prior service cost/(credit) for the postretirement plan are expected to be amortized from Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) into net periodic postretirement benefit (income) included in SG&A in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
 
Cash Contributions
The postretirement benefit plan is not funded and is not subject to any minimum regulatory funding requirements. We estimate that in 2014 we will contribute $2 million toward retiree medical premiums.
 
Estimated Future Benefit Payments
 
($ in millions)
Other Postretirement Benefits
2014
$
2

2015
2

2016
2

2017
2

2018
2

2019-2023
6


 
Defined Contribution Plans 
The Savings, Profit-Sharing and Stock Ownership Plan (Savings Plan) is a qualified defined contribution plan, a 401(k) plan, available to all eligible employees. Effective January 1, 2007, all employees who are age 21 or older are immediately eligible to participate in and contribute a percentage of their pay to the Savings Plan. Eligible employees, who have completed one year and at least 1,000 hours of service within an eligibility period, are offered a fixed matching contribution each pay period equal to 50% of up to 6% of pay contributed by the employee. Matching contributions are credited to employees’ accounts in accordance with their investment elections and fully vest after three years. We may make additional discretionary matching contributions.
 
The Savings Plan includes a non-contributory retirement account. Participants who are hired or rehired on or after January 1, 2007 and who have completed at least 1,000 hours of service within an eligibility period receive a Company contribution in an amount equal to 2% of the participants’ annual pay. This Company contribution is in lieu of the primary pension benefit that was closed to employees hired or rehired on or after that date. Participating employees are fully vested after three years.
 
In addition to the Savings Plan, we sponsor the Mirror Savings Plan, which is a non-qualified contributory unfunded defined contribution plan offered to certain management employees. This plan supplements retirement savings under the Savings Plan for eligible management employees who choose to participate in it. The plan’s investment options generally mirror the traditional Savings Plan investment options. As of the end of 2013, the unamortized pre-tax balance within Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss) for the plan was $17 million. Similar to the supplemental retirement plans, the Mirror Savings Plan benefits are paid from our operating cash flow and cash investments.
 
The expense for these plans, which was predominantly included in SG&A expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Operations, was as follows:
 
($ in millions)
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Savings Plan – 401(k)
 
$
38

 
$
43

 
$
52

Savings Plan – retirement account
 
11

 
11

 
11

Mirror Savings Plan
 
3

 
3

 
4

Total
 
$
52

 
$
57

 
$
67